5 Different Types of Inherited Retinal Diseases

Jun 10, 2022 | Optometry

5 Different Types of Inherited Retinal Diseases

The eyes are essential parts of the body, but unfortunately, many issues that hamper their functionality can develop over time. On top of this, some genetic issues can cause problems known as inherited retinal diseases (IRDs). Here are five different types of inherited retinal diseases.

Leber Congenital Amaurosis (LCA)

This disease begins in the first few months of a baby’s life and causes vision loss by damaging the retina. Someone with LCA may also be highly farsighted, as the cornea will be more cone shaped than curved. Additionally, LCA worsens over time and can lead to severe vision loss and blindness.

Stargardt Disease

This disease damages the middle part of the retina that helps you see straight, or the macula. Symptoms often present themselves in children and adolescents, but they can also emerge later in adulthood. Stargardt disease is a rare condition, occurring in only about 0.01 percent of people, and it’s even rarer for this condition to worsen and lead to blindness.


This type of inherited retinal disease primarily affects males, ultimately affecting approximately 0.001 percent of people. Choroideremia starts revealing itself as night blindness in childhood, but it can turn into tunnel vision and an inability to see smaller details later in life. In adulthood, this condition can develop further and cause complete vision loss.

Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP)

This is a more common IRD, but it still only affects about 1 in 4,000 people. It’s actually a group of diseases that cause the light-sensitive cells in the retina to die. RP first emerges as night blindness, but later, one may develop blind spots in their peripheral vision, which can spread to their central eyes.

Cone-Rod Dystrophy

This is another group of IRDs that can damage the cones and rods in the eyes, causing worsened vision over time. Symptoms such as blurred vision and photophobia will show up when one is a child. Later in life, one may develop blind spots and lose their color and peripheral vision.

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