10 Most Common Eye Diseases & Disorders

Dec 6, 2021 | Optometry

10 Most Common Eye Diseases & Disorders

Whether you’re a patient or an eye doctor, it’s important to be familiar with the common types of conditions that affect the eye. Here is a brief overview of the 10 most common eye diseases and disorders.

Refractive Errors

Refractive errors are the most common eye problem in the United States. Refractive errors include near-sightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, and presbyopia. If you wear glasses or know someone who does, you’re likely already familiar with refractive errors. Corrective lenses like glasses, contacts, and even surgery can help improve or restore vision.


Presbyopia is a type of refractive error that commonly affects those between the ages of 40-50. It involves the loss of ability to read up close, and smaller letters and print can become more difficult to read without corrective lenses.

Macular Degeneration

Macular degeneration, otherwise known as age-related macular degeneration (or “AMD”), is a type of eye disorder that affects adults as they age. It effects sharpness and central vision and makes it difficult to see fine details. There are two types of AMD: wet AMD and dry AMD.


Cataracts is another common eye problem that is closely tied to age. Cataracts involve the lens of the eye clouding over, leading to vision loss. This condition is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. However, there is a cure for cataracts, and you can receive surgery to treat them.

Diabetic Retinopathy

In American adults, the leading cause of blindness is diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy (or “DR”) results from a complication of diabetes and occurs when the retina’s blood vessels are damaged. Early diagnosis of DR can prevent vision loss through early treatment.


Another age-related condition, floaters occur most in those over the age of 50. Like the name suggests, floaters are tiny specks that drift or “float” across your field of vision. Floaters can be a sign of other, more serious eye problems, so it’s important to report them to your eye doctor.


Glaucoma is an eye disease related to the eye’s optic nerve. This disease can result in eventual blindness and is difficult to diagnose due to its lack of symptoms. Elevated eye pressure can be a sign of glaucoma, which your eye doctor will check for during exams.


Amblyopia, commonly known as “lazy eye,” is a common cause of vision problems in children. Lazy eye occurs when the eye and brain aren’t correctly aligned, which results in the brain favoring the other eye. Watch for amblyopia in children, as it is important to get treatment early on.


Colorblindness is the deficiency of full color vision in the eye. Someone with colorblindness may find it hard to differentiate similar colors. This disorder is quite common in men and less common in women.

Dry Eyes or Teary Eyes

Dry eye is a condition where your tear glands don’t produce enough or don’t produce quality tears, leaving your eyes feeling dry, burning, or itchy. On the other hand, your tear glands may be overactive and sensitive, which leads to the teary eyes condition. You can visit your local eye doctor to receive guidance and treatment for both conditions.

This has been a brief breakdown of the 10 most common eye diseases and disorders. The commonality of these conditions stresses why it’s so important to visit your local eye doctor regularly to check for these conditions. As an ophthalmologist, make sure you have all the right materials to test for these conditions, such as disposable tonometer tips, available here at Automated Ophthalmics, Inc.